#3

  1. Afkhami writes: “The universality of the feminine condition at present suggests the possibility of empathy among women on a global scale – a humanizing process that to succeed must be empowered to travel over time and space, as all successful discourses have historically done.”  Is she advocating for a global feminism or a global women’s movement?  What does empathy have to do with it?
  2. What is identity politics and why would it be important to the statements and manifestos you’ve read?
  3. How does Othering help sustain the existence of the global south?
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36 thoughts on “#3

  1. 2. Identity Politics is political movements or activity that are based on characteristics of a certain group of people such as culture, race, gender, social interests. This is important when reading the Declaration of Sentiments because the identity of the group is the female gender. The women at the Seneca Falls Convention used identity politics because they were addressing issues and providing resolutions for only one group of people; women. Although it was not only women who attended the Convention the political activity was catering to the needs of women. Furthermore, Identity Politics is also very important when trying to answer the question “Is there a global women rights movement?”. In the Global Women’s Rights Movement article it states that there are different goals and needs of women globally therefore there cannot just be one movement for all women. This is where Identity politics is important, because women of different cultures, religions, and social interests are creating movements and protest for issues that are relevant to them within their group identity. For example, Asian / Pacific Islander, and Indigenous Australian women have domestic violence concerns while white women that are fighting for welfare. Additionally, women in Europe are concerned tight sexual trafficking. Therefore, Identity Politics helps answer the question, is there a global movement, by showing that there are movements within different groups of people. Identity politics is the form or political activity that focuses on a certain group and characteristics that define them.

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    1. #2 (Re-done)
      Identity Politics is political movements or activity that are based on characteristics of a certain group of people such as culture, race, gender, social interests. This is important when reading both “The Combahee River Collective Statement” and “Empathy of Woman on a Global Scale” because they are both focused on a certain group of women. For example the “Combahee River Collective Statement” is made up of a group of of Black feminists who have been meeting since 1970’s and are doing political works throughout their own group of people which is black feminists. They used identity politics to form organizations such as the National Black Feminist Organization which particularly focuses on the needs of black women seeking a change. Furthermore, identity politics is important when reading the “Empathy of Woman on a Global Scale” because, women around the world have different needs and have different views on issues that women are facing. For instance, Afkhami is focusing on Post-revolutionary women in Iran. That is the identity of the group she is focusing on.Afkhami brings up the theology of how the Islam religion/ culture focuses on the place of women and how “Iranian women achieved the rights they possessed at the beginning of the Islamic revolution through their own hard and persistent effort.” Iranian women were focused on their needs and what characteristics makes them different from other women. Identity politics is important within both these readings because both authors reach out to women in third world countries.

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  2. Identity politics is the gathering of people within a certain religion or social background in order to form a alliance to move away from a certain religious ideology or certain traditions that the country holds. This plays a major role in the statements that were held in the readings because it advocates unity to those who believe that they are being oppressed. The unity is a big part of the ideology because power comes with numbers and the more people join into the cause, the more powerful the statements become. In the “Women in Post Revolution Iran”, the Iranian women had their freedom rights withheld due to the traditions that they had had pre-revolution and due to the religion that the majority of the country followed. The women had to join together in order to end this oppression of freedom. In the “Combahee River Collective Statement” reading, the black women in this case had to join together to not only fight again the oppression of black women in society but to also fight the oppression that they faced on a daily bases from men with the same race as them. In both cases, the unity gave them more power as more voices would be heard that way.

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  3. Identity politics is the politics that results from the formation of separate alliances in the political discourse. The identity in “identity politics” refers to a specific background of people (religious, social, or ethnic group), who have specific causes, concerns, and histories. Identity politics is important in itself because the interests and issues of many different groups cannot be lumped into one. Mahnaz Afkhami and the women of the Combahee River Collective would likely agree that Western feminism as it is pursued by the relatively empowered white women of the West is not inclusive of either Black women or Iranian women, whose histories and social standings developed against a different historical backdrop. Black women and Iranian women likely have different concerns than those of white middleclass women who are free both to pursue their ends without the pressure of societal racism (unlike African American women), and within a culture, the identity of which, is not defined at least in part by Shia Islam (unlike Iranian women). On a similar note, the identities of Black women and Iranian women evolved differently than that of white women. In Iran, for instance, Western feminist values were essentially transplanted into society, and was perceived as a Western “export”. The black women of the Combahee River Collective saw white women purposefully exclude black women in the political discourse and the journey towards getting the vote because of their race. With regard to identity politics, Western feminism cannot alone serve as the basis for a global women’s movement because it excludes the identities of women of various groups. Despite the lack of harmony between Western feminists, non-Western feminists, black feminists, and women of developing nations”, Afkhami says that non-western feminists have the potential to contribute greatly to a global women’s movement as the world becomes more and more globally interconnected and that an increased consciousness of women’s positions and a change in deep-rooted patriarchy are essential to making such a movement successful. Identity politics will play a defining role in shaping a global women’s movement.

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  4. 2. Identity politics refers to a type of cultural group with common political beliefs ( religious, economic,and social)fighting to industrialize their way of living, which differs from another cultural group or identity politic. In relation to the readings, Afkhami says, “non-western feminists have the potential to contribute greatly to a global women’s movement as the world becomes more and more globally interconnected and that an increased consciousness of women’s positions and a change in deep-rooted patriarchy are essential to making such a movement successful”. This quote is important because it correlates to biopolitics, which is power implemented not just from the top down, but through the language and structure of a society. So when we try to understand how identity politics become identified, this statement from Afkhami speaks for the way in which genders, race, and beliefs are overlooked problems in a society that become identity politics through the power of quantitative voice and structure. More so, this quote also reveals identity politics because it says that the power to a Women’s Movement , is in the style and quantity of people following the same beliefs to form an identity politic. Identity politics in regards to women movements is important because women are still fighting in developed and undeveloped nations to reform the way women are conceived and handled. All the different identity politics that arise from large oppressed groups of every race, gender, and ethnic group are essential fact findings when understanding the meaning of the way in which identity politics exist.

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  5. Identity politics is a political movement centered on a specific characteristic that actively affects a certain group of people such as race. Identity politics is especially important to the black feminist movement because the grand scale Western feminist movement has been largely dominated by white women. The white feminist movement is only purely focused on sexism because white women will never experience oppression due to their race only their gender. Racial and sexual oppression are two interlocking issues that black women and other women of color cannot separate. As the reading The Combahee River Collective Statement explains, “We struggle together with Black men against racism, while we also struggle with Black men about sexism”. White men are able to separate themselves from their sexual oppressors, white men, but black women cannot separate themselves from black men because they are both fighting the war against racism. Black feminists need identity politics to unify their stance against both sexual and racial oppression since both those issues actively affect their livelihood.

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  6. #2
    Identity politics addresses interest or perspectives of certain social groups, such as race, religion or class. Identity politics are shaped based on the aspects through a form of identity. In this reading, it would be important to address identity politics in Black feminism because Black women are viewed and treated differently; the multi-facets of inequality that Black women experience are not mainstream, they are women but their racial identity defines their struggle . The context of their concern differs from the white experience, the multi-dimensions of race, sex, class, and gender creates an understanding the discourse of social issues from a Black feminist interpretation.

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  7. 2. Identity politics is people of a specific race, social background, or religion deviating from traditional party politics and creating their own coalition with common ideals. This applies to many different groups of women within the feminism movement. For example, in the “Combahee River Collective”, black women have to not only combat gender oppression, but also oppression directed towards their race. They are fighting the same battle that black men are, but also enduring sexism from white and black men. In Mahnaz Afkhami’s “Women in Post Revolution Iran”, it’s explained how identity politics applies to Iranian women as well. Womens human rights and freedom had been stripped from them because of the countries culture and religion. Iranian women had later gained their freedom once again after forming a group to combat this. The references to identity politics in both of these writings depicts that different groups of people endure different problems, but forming groups against these specific problems can efficiently combat these issues.

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  8. Identity politics refers to a tendency for people of a specific religion, race, gender, or social background to form exclusive political alliances to reconstruct society. This is important to the statements and manifestos we have read because both Black and Iranian women are fighting for equality, whether the equalities are weighed on the same scale or not, they are both driven to end the oppression among them. The Combahee River Collective Statement states that women from a young age were told to be quiet for the sake of being ladylike and to make them less objectionable in the eyes of white people. The fact that they were not only oppressed women, but they were oppressed Black women who were told to act a certain way so the other race and gender would not judge them. In the book excerpt, Women in Post Revolutionary Iran, the author Mahnaz Afkhami writes, “A prototypical prophetic hadith states that ‘A woman does not have one-hundredth of the rights that a husband has over his wife.’ And, according to another, the Prophet declares, ‘If I could order any person to prostrate [sujdeh] before anyone except God, I would command that women prostrate before their husbands.” Women, who make up half the human race, are seen as creatures that must keep quiet and apparently if possible, bow down to men. Identity politics gives those women a chance to exclude themselves from being what society wants them to be, and allows them to stand up for themselves and fight for their right to happiness and liberty.

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  9. 2). Identity Politics is a political style that focused on the problems of various minority groups.In this case is related to female gender and sexism. Identity Politics is important to the statements because it gives the opportunity to minority people who were being excluded to speak up .In the “Combahee River Collective Statement” Black women where sharing their experiences and started growing consciousness and built politics to change their lives and end oppression. However racism was not that only problem sexism was too. The fact that they fought for their own oppression makes it identity of politics.”We believe that the most profound and potentially most radical come directly out of our own identity , as opposed to end somebody’s else oppression”. In Afkhami reading she expressed how politics can influence in making things better. “The law as the expression of the will of the state was indispensable to the securing of women’s rights in Iran.” In Conclusion in order to achieve women’s right in Iran it depends on “Political power”.

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  10. Identity politics can be described as a group of people with similar personal characteristics such as sex, race, and culture, whose focus is primarily in relation to their specific organization. In “The Combahee River Collective Statement”, identity politics is addressed through Black feminism. According to the article, Black feminism is described as “the logical political movement to combat the manifold and simultaneous oppressions that all women of color face”. These oppressions include, but are not limited to, the racial and sexual castes placed upon Black women by a system of white male rule. Black women receive the harshest treatment because being a woman while having darker skin are the two most distinctively oppressive traits in America. The feminist movement, as a whole, has done very little to address the specific problems black women face. With the use of identity politics, Black feminism is able to focus and work solely on these issues.

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  11. Q1:
    The author is advocating for global feminism because the exert is acknowledging the complexities that woman face through religion and customary traditions, for example, education, socioeconomic and politics, The problems that women is prevalent domestic and internationally. Women globally suffers under a patriarchal system. Empathy is used as a mechanism for sensitivity and it correlates with the needs of women and their rights that they are fighting for. Empathy is expressing the shared consideration among women whether or not a particular matter are interchangeable and it has a considerable affect on a women’s perspective

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  12. Identity politics is defined as the formation of a group by specific religion, race, gender, or social status to form an alliance to try and reform society. This is vital to the statements and manifestos we read because it identifies different struggles for different types of women in the global Women’s movement. In “The Combahee River Collective” the group is identified as an alliance of black feminists who have joined together, in a form of identity politics, who are “committed to struggling against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression”. Their struggle come not only from being a woman, but also being black. They stated, “There is a very low value placed upon Black women’s psyches in this society, which is both racist and sexist”. The double minority allows them to have double the difficulty in achieving what they are aiming for. In “Women in Post-Revolutionary Iran: A Feminist Perspective” by Mahnaz Afkhami, another group of women are identified. The Iranian Women’s rights had been secluded due to political party, using religion out of context to keep the women out of the picture. The Iranian women, in relations to identity politics, were able to form an alliance to end the oppression against them, “Iranian women achieved the rights they possessed at the beginning of the Islamic revolution through their own hard and persistent effort. It took them almost a century to move from total public invisibility to a position of visible political, social, and economic presence”. The importance of Identity Politics shines very obviously shines through the readings, for it has positively impacted the said groups when formed.

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  13. The article “Women In Post Revolutionary Iran: A Feminist Perspective”, Mahnaz Afkhami talks about the lives of women in the south and the positions they take as “Others”. From my understanding, the words “others” is like a group of individuals who are left out and put to a side and are unlabeled. By unlabeled I mean that in the minds of others they are portrayed as “not one of us” and this makes the “others” feel like they are less important and less human. The “others” in the article are the women. These innocent women are viewed as less worthy and they are treated more like an object than they are human. That is to say, “women had lost many of their rights and privileges” and men do not acknowledge women the way they do other men. Their existence does not mean much because men feel they are dominant and better than the “others”. Although the “others” are not given much respect and appreciation, the only way to maintain their existence is by being good around the household. These women “achieve value primarily as mother, and secondarily as wife, daughter, or sister”. Since they are not given a lot to prosper at in life, the only way to succeed is by being good at what they normally do on an everyday basis. Overall, women do not have a lot to gain more than what they give and this makes it harder for women to prosper and get ahead in life because of their limited rights

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  14. Identity politics can be defined as a political movement based on one of the following topics: gender, race, religion, ethics social interest, in which a group of specific people characterize themselves with. During 1974 to 1980, there was a black feminist group in Boston called the Combahee River Collective. This group and the Mahnaz Afkhami explain that there is a big part of western feminism is just focused in white women. Thus leaving out other women around the world that aren’t white. This created a problem because black and Iranian woman will face different problems compared to an average middle class white woman. For example, while white middle class woman aren’t facing racism in their town while a black woman will face it in the same town just because of how she looks. When it comes to the topic of identity products and women’s movements, both topics are still very important. This is because woman across the world, in 3rd world countries or not, are still fighting to change the pre conception idea of how a woman should be viewed as. This relates to the different identity politics that are brought to light from large oppressed groups of minorities. No matter the race, ethnic group, or gender, plays a key role when having to understand why identity politics even exist in the first place.

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  15. 3.
    The Global South refers to developing nations, typically in the Southern Hemisphere, but also includes the nations of Africa, Central and Latin American, and most of Asia. These nations suffer and experience a broad amount of discrimination as opposed to developed countries. For example, Wendy Harcourt discusses the troubles of women in Africa, “Some countries, such as Nigeria, makes gender violence one aspect of the conflict due to a multitude of social, political and economic injustices conditioned by colonial and post-colonial
    rule.” In comparison to women from the United States, Harcourt writes, “the experience of domestic violence has
    many different factors contributing to it that are overlooked in mainstream white discussions.”
    Often, women from developed countries neglect problems that do not affect them. For example, a middle class women from England will experience dissenting challenges from a single mother in Venezuela. Women, or people in general, form groups and coalitions based upon their common interests, and similar goals. People who have opposing views to coalitions are notoriously labeled as the “other”.
    Othering then furthers the divide between people and their values, making differences between advocates seem greater than they are. Unfortunately, women from Denmark protesting for rights are more likely to be heard and listened to, over women from Brazil. This bleeds into privilege, financial status, and frankly, the amount of time women have to allocate for protesting. Othering inhibits women from representing each other because the variations among them are perceived as too many.

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  16. 2. Identity Politics refers to a tendency for people of a specific religion, race, or social background forming a political alliance removing themselves from their traditional ways. This term is very valuable to the statement because it explains the oppression in both women. In both The Combahee River Collective Statement and Women in Post-revolutionary Iran it explains that being a feminist female is already hard enough but being a minority on top of that is even more difficult. For example, black women receive the cruelest punishment because they’re both female with dark skin which isn’t the average norm in the society. It wouldn’t be the same punishment as a white woman of course. Identity Politics is factual and is still very much active.

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  17. Identity politics is a political stance based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify. Some social organizations that can shape someone’s aspect or identity can be based on race, class, gender, gender identity, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, culture, language and dialect. This is important and makes sense with the articles that we have read because it shows the motive why that particular group is fighting for what they are you doing. For example in the combahee river collective 1 point that author made was that as children, black girls are treated differently from a young age compared to their male counterparts. Girls are told to be ladylike . Because of identity politics, it helps in this case for black women to come together and unite and fight for specific things that would pertain to them instead of white and black females as a whole.

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  18. 1.) I think Afkhami is advocating for global women’s movement. In her article she mainly talks about third world country feminism because they have different needs than other countries, and all though they have different needs, these women in the third world country are more developed and stronger. She shines light on the women who because of their religion, are ordered to act a certain way. As these women go through long years of being told what to do, they finally start organizing groups in order for women to have rights. With this in mind Afkhami states “The heightened awareness of female human rights that exists today throughout the world makes possible a more unified and effective approach to the global feminist movement” She believes that since these movements are going on everywhere around the globe the only thing left to do is unify it. Afkhami also regards on empathy by saying “It becomes easier for Third World feminists to develop a sense of empathy with their sisters in other parts of the globe.” Empathy comes into play because again all these women even though they are fighting for different rights and different ways of equality, they all understand the struggle of not having something that is a basic human right and understand the struggle of being looked down upon and the feeling of being to subordinate to male figures.

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  19. Identity politics refers to when a certain group of people with a particular race, gender, or religion forms a political alliance and separates itself from the general party politics. In other words, when a specific group separates itself from the political parties and forms its own political group to discuss specific issues that concern the group members. Both articles discuss a form of identity politics. In “The Combahee River Collective Statement,” Michele Wallace discusses how as in 1973, Black feminists formed a political group called National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO). However, later in the text, she discusses how they had “serious disagreements with NBFO’s bourgeois-feminist stance and their lack of a clear political focus.” As a result, identity politics lead the first NBFO group to form and then because of the NBFO’s lack of issues concerning Black feminists who are also poor, Michele and others formed a separate group where they focused on “the lives of women, Third World and working people.” They were also concerned about anyone those who struggled in “in which race, sex, and class are simultaneous factors in oppression.” Therefore, they ended up forming a separate group from NBFO to target issues that were considered not necessary which is identity politics.

    This is similar to Mahnaz Afkhami’s “Women in Post-Revolutionary Iran: A Feminist Perspective” in which she discusses how during the White Revolution Iranian women were removed from being in the minority category and they began to be involved in a lot more than fulfilling the role of a mother. They achieved “the right to participate significantly in [their] own marriage, divorce and decisions about [their] children.” During this time, they joined the modernized government because it aided them in moving forward and having positions in “the cabinet, the armed forces, … and a variety of fields in science and high technology.” However, once the Islamic Republic took over, they struggled against the government because the new system lowered women’s position in Iran. They closed childcare centers, ordered women to wear full Islamic cover, and “closed nearly 140 university fields of study to women.” After the revolutionary elan declined, women began to join other fields such as arts, literature, education, and politics. In this article, Iranian women did not necessarily form a group but took advantage of the government system’s modernization during the White Revolution and after the revolutionary elan diminished, they struggled on their own. The key to this article is that women who want to go against the traditional government rule are stopped by other women who value Shiism (Islamic religion) even if it is “fragmented or self-contradictory” as the author states and as a result, they do not succeed in forming an alliance dedicated to women’s rights issues. In other words, due to the separation between women who want change and others that do not, they are not able to form an alliance and therefore they were very close to having identity politics but were not successful in achieving it.

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  20. 2.) Identity Politics is the a tendency for people of a particular religion, race, social background, etc., to form exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics. In the Combahee River Collective statement black feminists have been meeting together and have been struggling against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression. Identity Politics is important for this reading because black feminists have been forming groups ever since 1974 and have been combating the manifold and simultaneous oppressions that all women of color face. Black feminists also believed that the most profound and potentially most radical politics come directly out of our own identities. That is why Identity Politics is important for this reading because black feminists had to form groups in order to come together and fight these oppressions that all women of color face.

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  21. #2
    Identity politics is defined as a political activity or movements based on catering to the cultural, ethnic, gender, racial, religious, or social interests that characterize a group identity. It would be important to black feminists from “The Combahee River Collective Statement” article who struggle against racial, sexual, heterosexual, and class oppression. For example, there has been pejorative stereotypes which can be considered racial oppression against black women. Words such as “mammy” and “sapphire” were used against black women. An example of racial-sexual oppression involved the raping of black women by white men as a weapon of political repression. An example of sexual oppression is when young black girls were told to act “lady-like” and quiet to not be disapproved by white people. Identity Politics would be important in catering to those subjects in the black feminism movement. Identity politics would be important to Iranian women from the “Empathy Among Women on a Global Scale” article who demanded social rights in a society that suppressed them at every level of the hierarchical social order, which was supported by a formal structure of religious traditions and clerical establishment.

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  22. Identity politics is the practice of people with a certain race, religion, sex, etc. creating a political group in order to address the issues, and bring change to society. This term is important to the manifestos and statements I’ve read, because it helps differentiate the particular women’s groups who deal with a different issue compared to another group. For example in one of the reading s, “The Combahee River Collective Statement”, it says how black feminists not only have to focus on fighting sexism but also racism as well. Which means they may also have to combat the racism in the “white women’s movement” , since in the reading it says ” we are made constantly and painfully aware of how little effort white women have made to understand and combat their racism”. While compared to a white women, who don’t have to deal with racial injustices.

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  23. Identity politics is wide range movement of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of unfairness of members of certain social groups. Rather than organizing solely around belief systems, programmatic strategies, or party affiliation, identity political formations typically aim to secure the political freedom of a specific public demoted within its larger environment. Identity politics is mainly significant to the black feminist movement which focused on challenging patriarchy, understood as struggle between men and women, the foundation dynamic of all oppression’s. They were oppressed black women who were told to act in a way so that other race and gender would not judge. Identity politics contributes to those women to eliminate themselves from being what humanity desires them to be, and permits them to be who they want them to be and fight for their right.

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  24. 2. Identity politics is a political movement that bases off cultural, ethnic, racial, religious, or social interest that categorize a group identity. What this means is different groups have different things that there fighting for, and in a way separates themselves from other movements to just fight for their own. This is important in what we have read this far because every article has a different topic that their fighting for, so with identity politics they aren’t generalized in just fighting for women rights, they specify what they are fighting for and why. Also it specifies what each group had problems with. For example in “Combahee River Collective” they were trying to make people understand Black feminism. They didn’t want to fight, all they wanted was to spread awareness of the historical context surrounding the treatment that Black women had. Because they were Black women, they were oppressed in a different way. When they were slaves, the women struggle with being raped by their owners. Also Black men also treated them wrong, even though both genders were being discriminated against. All these women wanted was unity between men and women activist. In the text it says, “As Black feminist we know that we have a very definite revolutionary task to preform and we are ready for a lifetime of work and struggle before us.” This shows that they are fighting for a specific movement and they know how hard it will be to overcome it. In the article “Empathy on a Global Scale” focuses on Iranian Women. But they aren’t fighting just for Iranian women rights, They want all women on a global level to have equality. Some way or some how women are oppressed and want a problem in their country solved. A solution to this problem would be empathy. With empathy woman could eliminate patriarchy. Also with empathy they can have a more open understanding between different countries and remove distinctions. With all women together they could make a movement that would bring not only political but economical social powers to all women. In the text it says, “a major function of which is to keep women in bondage for ever.” this shows that no matter what women in different countries are going through they will always have a bond, which is fighting for equality. In the end Both text talk about women equality in deferent ways, which is why identity politics is important.

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  25. Identity politics is a movement based on the cultural, ethnic, gender, racial, religious, or social interests that characterize a group identity. This term is relevant to the statements and manifestos that we have read because both of the authors are leaning towards a certain cultural/religious and racial/gender group. For example in the article written by Mahnaz Afkhami, Afkhami concentrates her focus on Iranian women and the Islamic religion. Expressing how Iranian women are viewed and treated by the religion and that part of the world. Another example is the statement titled “The Combahee River Collective Statement”, and here the main focus is on black feminism. Expressing the type of oppression that women of color are placed against and what they struggle with even against the opposite gender of the same racial group.

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  26. Identity politics is the tendency of a particular social group to create an exclusive politics or alliance separate from an existing larger movement or party, and defines themselves according to their mission and beliefs. This is important to the group of Black Feminists of 1974 who actively engaged and struggled against racial, and sexual oppression, which is targeted mainly at black females because they experienced no progress from being part of the larger movements. So they established “Black Feminism” as their politics because they saw this as their own way to tackle the specific issues of black feminists only, such as racial and sexual oppression together. Another struggle that they encountered as Black Feminists were the lack of resources or lack of supporters, and they even came to realize at one point that there are no one to help them except themselves; it is them against the world, according to the essay. Identity politics is what the statements of “The Combahee River Collective” are defined as. The collective of Black Feminists and their organization is an example of identity politics.

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  27. 1. When Afkhami writes “The universality of the feminine condition at present suggests the possibility of empathy among women on a global scale – a humanizing process that to succeed must be empowered to travel over time and space, as all successful discourses have historically done” she is advocating for both a global feminism movement. I say this because feminism is when women have the same social, political, and economic equality as men and Afkhami is definitely attempting to reach all women to fight for equality. Afkhami focuses on Iranian women, due to the Iranian culture women have always been second to men and how Islam presents itself as ahistorical. Afkhami uses empathy to show the possible outcomes that the world may be able to reach if all women work for equality. With empathy the historical contextual understanding of the treatment of women may better lead to a reduction/ elimination of patriarchy. Empathy would remove geographical distinctions for a more open dialogue, meaning that it wouldn’t create any boundaries and make everything one. In conclusion, empathy is used in Afkhami’s advocation of global feminism to eliminate patriarchy the recognition of the universality of feminine condition and a movement to bring political and social power to all women.

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  28. Mahnaz Afkhami, a lifetime advocate for the rights of women. Afkhami worked with many activists and helped many women in Muslim societies become leaders. She is also the Founder and President of Women’s Learning Partnership. Based on this background information, Afkhami accomplished many impacting issues about women in society. In my understanding, Afkhami is advocating for the global women’s movement. A global women’s movement is organized by women in order to achieve their rights which is arranged in a systematic way to gain equality in social, political, and economic power. Through chapter one Afkhami states a significant line, “In time, her contract with the larger society is totally mediated by men.” The main concept in this text is that women are said to be under the ruling of men, basically have no significance in society. This concept triggers a global women’s movement because women want to have the same rights and political power as men. Afkhami also states, “The first quarter of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of a number of women leaders in Iran who demanded the most elemental social rights in a society that suppressed them at every level of the hierarchy social order.” Based on this text, women organized movements to gain social rights within their society. With empathy, the patriarchal systems cause many to suffer. May be challenged. Empathy as a historical context helps undertsand the treatment of women and can potentially lead to reduce patriarchy. Empathy will also remove geographic distinctions among the East and West.

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  29. 1. Afkhami is advocating for a global feminism as opposed to a global women’s movement because she recognizes how vastly different the goals are of women around the world in terms of their rights. Calling for a “global women’s movement” is tricky because there is and will never be a singular women’s movement; there are many smaller movements in every country in every corner of the world. Using the wording of “the universality of the feminine condition” is more fitting because it describes the struggle that women everywhere face because of their sex, without necessarily saying that all of these struggles are the same or even that they are equal. This notion of equality/inequality is where the concept of empathy comes in; Afkhami wishes for there to be empathy among women, particularly for women of developing nations to have empathy for the struggles of women in developed nations. It’s easy for women of developed nations to see those nations in poverty whose women are being oppressed by the millions and feel sadness and outrage for them. Violence against women such as rape, genital mutilation, acid attacks, domestic abuse, etc. occurs in developing nations at alarmingly high rates, and it is probably easy for the women of these nations to look at women in the West and think our problems are relatively cushy. After all, women of the U.S. have the right to vote and work and hold positions of power in politics. Our wage gap and shut shaming issues seem to pale in comparison to their problems. However, for there to be a global feminism, women everywhere have to be empathetic towards the struggles of all women, and the idea that the patriarchy has negatively affected all of us and that it is a structure that needs to be dismantled for the good of all women and men.

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  30. Identity politics is political positions based on the interests and perspectives of social groups with which people identify. Identity politics includes the ways in which people’s politics may be shaped by aspects of their identity through loosely correlated social organizations.This amusement a adult role in the statements that were held in the readings as it support conjunction to those who believe that they are being oppressed.
    In “The Combahee River Collective Statement,” Michele Wallace scatter how as in 1973, Black feminists formed a political assemblage called National Black Feminist Organization (NBFO). However, later in the text-book, she discusses how they had “serious disagreements with NBFO’s bourgeois-feminist site and their failure of a clear politic focalize.” As a result, selfhood government lead the first NBFO family to form and then because of the NBFO’s blame of issues participation Black feminists who are also shabby, Michele and others formed a disunite body where they focused on “the lives of women, Third World and working companions.” They were also affected nearly anyone those who contend in “in which breed, sexuality, and class is are contemporaneous factors in oppression.” Therefore, they ended up forming a disunite cluster from NBFO to slice upshot that were considered not need ment which is individuality politics.
    Black feminists also believed that the most profound and potentially most radical politics come directly out of our own identities. That is why Identity Politics is significant for this perusal because black feminists had to form cluster in command to come together and fight these oppressions that all women of species appearance.

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  31. The phrase “identity politics” has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups. It is gathering of people of same interest and people who are willing to fight for the same cause. It is important because it helps women of particular manifesto to deal with the problems that they have been facing and it differentiates them from the rest. In another section denominate, ‘Problems in Organizing Black Feminists’, the Combahee River Collective discusses some reasons why there was obstacle organizing dusky feminist. They stated that the biggest proposition was since they were fighting against a wide range of oppressions. They also express that there was very low value trust on black ladies’s belief in participation. Even though they had to overflow many obstacles, the Combahee River Collective fought and struggled to change the provision of all swart females.
    This article was dedicated to working on struggles such as sex, race and class which are all factors contributed to oppression, which is why it shows the factor of identity politics and how it is so important to fight these oppressions and shine with bright colors.

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  32. 2. Identity politics is a tendency for people of a particular religion, race and socio-economic background to form exclusive political alliance, rather than broad based traditional party politics, and such is evident in Afkhami’s feminist perspective of post revolutionary Iran and the Combahee river collective statement. Both articles examine the global feminist movement through the lens of third world feminists in the Middle East and Africa, as opposed to from the western, more industrialized nations.

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  33. Identity politics is a tendency of a particular religion, race, and social background to form exclusive political alliances, moving away from traditional broad-based party politics. This plays a major role to the statements in the readings because white women will never experience oppression the way black women do, due to their race. The only thing white women experience is oppression for their gender. In the combahee river collective statement, it states that black women struggle with black men against racism. But black women also encounter sexism– where black men do not.

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  34. Identity politics is a political position in which the formation of people involved share the same race, religion, or even social background. Identity politics is an important term because it is manifested in The Combahee River Collective Statement. Black feminist take a stand as seen in this articles ; speaking of how their political stand point is different “We struggle together with black men against racism, while we also struggle with black men about sexism”. This specifies that these women have a difficult time as women, but also for being black women. An example of this is also shown “We know that there is such a thing as racial-sexual oppression which is neither solely racial nor solely sexual, e.g., the history of rape of Black women by white men as a weapon of political repression.” Black women were seen as an object to just play with, yet only black women understood this since white women were not going through this during the time being. This overall reflects on how identity politics plays a major role in this article and how it is portrayed throughout time .

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  35. Identity politics refers to a group of people based on race, gender, sexuality and etcetera that gather together to form an alliance which is outside the norm of a regular political party. Identity politics is important amongst black feminists because of the differs from the feminists who we first think of, which are white women. The Combahee River Collective Statement is written by black feminists. Their ultimate goal is to be treated like humans while White women want more equality. There is known to be racism with the white feminist against black feminist, which I think is pretty ironic because they’re women so shouldn’t they want equality for their own gender? Black women would often be raped by white men because of political repression. Black men have had a negative impression towards black feminists they don’t want to change their habitual ways that degrade black women. Michelle Wallace said that because black women are at the bottom of the social hierarchy, they must do what no one else has done before, which is fight the world. Black women must deal with both sexism and racism and in this document it implies that the only ones who care about black women rights and equality are black women.

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