#5

  1. What is the problem of reciprocity?  To whom does it apply and why?
  2. I mentioned the short story “The Ones Who Walked Away from Omelas” by Ursula K. LeGuin.  After reading the story, is such an outcome possible for transnational feminists?  What would such a walk look like?  How would you characterize those who stay behind?
  3. Anzaldúa describes “linguistic terrorism,” specifically relating the term to her experiences being scolded for speaking Chicano Spanish instead of something more Castilian. What is “linguistic terrorism” and how do you see it at work in the texts?
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32 thoughts on “#5

  1. 1. The problem of reciprocity is when the caregiver and disabled person do not take the time to build an intimate relationship with one another in order to meet each other’s needs. Such needs include asking for help when needed, assigning responsibility, and being able to rely on each other. Moreover, social expectations about the independence and dependence of a woman causes a strain in the relationship between the caregiver and disabled person. It sets unrealistic notions that serves as an impediment in their lives. For example, it is difficult for women to ask or receive help because “we are taught to place a high value on giving and to avoid the appearance of selfishness” (Davis 4). For some caregivers, their problems are brought down to excuses since they aren’t the ones with the disability while disabled women are easily judged because of their constant dependability on others. Not being able to form a reciprocal relationship is draining to both parties.

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  2. 1. According to Gloria Anzaldua, linguistic terrorism is an attack on individuals to shape what is acceptable and what is not, which also creates a hierarchy. In Audre Lorde’s piece “The Transformation of Silence into Language and Action,” she speaks about how it is difficult for some women to speak up about their problems and inequality in their environments because society has shaped the way they should act, think, and speak. She also speaks about how she spoke up after she was diagnosed with breast cancer, and about how the thought of her own death helped her realize what her voice is worth. Both these authors relate because they mutually speak about how being a woman has shaped the way they have lived their lives, and how speaking up, whether it is in English or any other language, will make an immense difference. Lorde also says that transformation of silence into language and action is an act of self-revelation, and that scares most people. She and Anzaldua encourage women to speak up and have a voice of their own, because they are going to die eventually and they have one life to make a change.

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  3. First of all reciprocity from my understanding is something you exchange with someone else for benefits or even privileges. This usually pertains to lower class citizens but more so to females on a society that takes away their privileges. When I say the poor I mean those who aren’t able to prosper in society and reason for this is because they cannot afford to leave the environment they are living on due to lack of opportunities and rights being taken away. This can also relate to women in the middle eastern side of the world whose lives have been forced to be giving up and let men take over them lie property. This disability that women have, being unable to care for themselves gives men the right to take over them becoming dominant whether is physically or mentally. Since men take advantage of the dependency that women have over them, women become vulnerable and they struggle to survive on their own. In this case, we can view women as “handicap” they exchange their power and rights over to men in exchange for some respect for themselves and the countries religious beliefs. Just because women are giving up their rights that does not mean that the communication and relationship between people are “good”. Therefore the reciprocity can be seen as a way to control society but in reality it limits the power of women and makes them handicap due to lack of social expectations that make them vulnerable in society.

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  4. 1) Reciprocity is the process of exchanging things with others for mutual benefits. This could be a physical trade or an exchange of knowledge. The problem with reciprocity though is that it is tailored towards average everyday person and not those that may have a disability of some sorts. In Barbara Davis’s article “Women, Disability, and Feminism”, it is argued that many disabled people do not receive equal reciprocity in turns of freedom because they might not get any actual help with their mental or physical problem. This is evident when Davis states that “Parents and teachers are encouraged to work at giving the illusion that the disabled person is independent or productive, and they may therefore strive to shift this burden to each other or to other professionals” (Davis 2).In this example, there is no reciprocity used because they are giving an illusion to the disabled person that they are independent rather than actually giving them the independence. There is no mutual benefit in this as both parties are being harmed rather than benefited. On one end, the teacher or parent that is trying to help the disabled person does so much as to pass on the problem that they believe exists to a professional or someone else rather than helping the disabled person fully. Many hours would be spent on this for no mutual benefits to either party. In the disabled person perspective, They are not receiving much help because they are under an illusion of independence the whole time. Both the parents and the teachers will keep giving the burden off to each other but none will accept the responsibility which can in turn harm the disabled person mentally and in social situations.

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  5. The problem with reciprocity is it limits the caretaker and person with disabilities from fully giving each other the much needed attention they need. “Reciprocity involves the difficulty of recognizing each other’s needs, relying on the other, asking and receiving help, delegating responsibility, giving and receiving empathy, respecting boundaries”(Davis 4). In the article, it is stated that women may refuse help to avoid looking selfish which may suggest that they would feel as if they were imposing on others by asking for help. Feminist groups have had doubts on what women with disabilities could and could not do which affected the women with disabilities negatively. Women with disabilities have not been able to be fully understood because of reciprocity.

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  6. Davis describes reciprocity as “the investment in relationship by both participants” (4). Davis recognizes that reciprocity between a disabled woman and her caretaker can be problematic because the disabled individual does not always know what the caregiver’s needs are, especially if she is mentally handicapped. This creates a problem for reciprocity because reciprocity in a relationship, as Davis explains, involves participants’ ability to rely on each other, recognize each other’s needs, give/ receive empathy, ask each other for help, etc. For disabled individuals and their caregivers, a different relationship is realized wherein the caregivers play the dominant, independent role, and the disabled individuals play the subordinate, dependent role. Davis notes that this could be problematic for the caregivers, who actually need to feel needed, and are in some way dependent on the disabled individual’s needs to provide care-giving service. Davis says that the problem of reciprocity could be helped if the caregiver “can see articulating her own needs as training in reciprocity”. In this way, the asymmetrical relationship that exists between disabled women and their caretakers can be changed towards a more equal one.

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  7. Reciprocity is the investment in a relationship by both participants. The problems arises when both members of the relationship do not take the time to acknowledge each other’s needs. It is difficult for the caregiver to express their own needs because of the backlash that they might face. Mothers are told that they are brave for taking care of a disabled child and the mothers have to play into the puesdo compliment because if they talk about the realities and difficultities of taking care of a disabled child they receive criticism for complaining and since women are expected to be selfless. They are marked as selfish if they expand on those realities. ” women are taught to place a high value on giving and to avoid even the appearance of selfishness” (Davis 4). It is expected that for women being selfless is second nature so when a caregiver feels overwhelmed by the task and that affects the wellbeing of the caregiver, which ultimately affects the wellbeing of the disabled child.

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  8. 1. The problem with reciprocity is that there is no mutual benefit. It is entirely based on a one-sided relationship. In “Women, Disability, and Feminism: Notes toward a New Theory” it states on page 4 “Reciprocity involves the difficulty of recognizing each other’s needs, relying on the other, asking and receiving help, delegating responsibility, giving and receiving empathy, respecting boundaries.” (Davis). In the articles reciprocity applies to the caregiver; they’re not given enough credit for the amount of effort they put into a disabled person. People refer caring as a method of action when it’s so much more than that. Caregivers provide the needs of someone else, physically and emotionally which is underestimated by many in the society we live in today.

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  9. Reciprocity is exchanging something with someone for their mutual benefits. The problem between reciprocity and caregiving is that there are no mutual benefits. Other problem is that reciprocity is related to normal abled people and not with disabled people. Abled people have the benefits and are taken care while disabled people are not privileged with those benefits. Women who are mother of a disabled child are burden with the rule or acceptation of being selfless and do not have any kind of reciprocity with their own child which is a normal thing. Those mother love their child and give care and the child may also be grieving for their own ability to contribute. The problem emerges when the recipient and the receiver both do not care for each others needs which have proved that women with disabilities have not fully acknowledged because of reciprocity.

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  10. 3. “Linguistic terrorism” is when someone is judged upon because of the way they speaks a certain language. Anzaldua was judged by society because she spoke a Chicano Spanish. Society saw this as an “in-proper Spanish”, but in reality she was speaking her type of Spanish; what sounded right to her. Language shapes who you are, so by judging how someone speaks is like judging their identity. But “linguistic terrorism” is more than just language, its about being judged on whats right and whats wrong in society. Anzaldua emphasizes that no matter what people think of you, you should never let that stop you from speaking up. We see this work in the text we have read because in the articles, women are being judged upon based on their culture, race, and religion. In the text “Empathy on a Global Scale” by Mahnaz Afkhami focuses on Iranian women. In Afkhami’s article she talks about how because of her culture, women were seen as people that had to follow the rules and have no opinion. But later on women started to stand up for their rights, and finally some change was being done. This shows that if someone wants change then you have to speak up. Iranian women went against their culture, but if it wasn’t for that then they might have never seen change. Also in the article “Transformation of Silence” by Audre Lorde talks about a Black women that is judged based on her race, Because she is an African American women, she is seen as someone that shouldn’t have a voice. But she wants everyone to speak up and say what they think. She thinks no one should be afraid, the only way change will happen is if one expresses their thoughts. In the end “linguistic terrorism” isn’t just about language its about society judging people on what they think in right and wrong. But we should not let society shape who we are or who we become.

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  11. 1. Reciprocity is funding in a relationship between two people with mutual benefits. The problem with reciprocity in caregiving is that its one-sided and caregivers are expected to invest in the care receiver with no expectation from them. Reciprocity generates the difficulty of understanding the needs for others in case of the caregivers here .A mother of a disabled child is expected to be the same as well, the caregivers are underestimated for their effort towards the disabled people who are not related to them.In the article the author tries to say that the caregivers in some way also are in the need for the care which they are expected to give to the people in need which creates an assumed symbiotic relationship, however its more asymmetric which needs to be changed.

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  12. 1. Reciprocity is exchanging things or privileges with others for mutual benefits, however when looking at some relationships between caregivers and disabled people, it becomes problematic. The difficulty with reciprocity for these people in poor relationships is that there is no benefit towards the caregiver, making it partial. The job of the caregiver is to provide for the needs and emotional or moral support of another person who cannot do it themselves. If neither of these people are able to understand each others needs or emotions, that is when problems arise in reciprocity. Barbara Davis refers to this in her article “Women, Disability, and Feminism”, stating that it’s not an easy task to acknowledge each others needs, feel empathy towards each other, and having trust in one another in terms of responsibility. However, Davis also points out that disabled people also at times receiving the worse end of reciprocity. She uses the example of caregivers, parents, or teachers giving disabled people misconceptions about being independent, while not actually being independent. These are the problems with reciprocity in caregiver and disabled relations.

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  13. Based on the excerpt, “Strength of my Rebellion” by Gloria Anzadula linguistic terrorism is to critique on one’s identity, in which meant that someone put an imaginary boundary on what is acceptable and what is not. Anzadula states “As a culture, we call ourselves Spanish when referring to ourselves as a linguistic group and when copping it out. It is then that we forget our predominant Indian genes… We call ourselves Mexican-American to signify we are nor Mexican nor American, but more the noun “American” than the adjective “Mexican”. Which means because they rather refer themselves as just Spanish rather than Chicano, since it doesn’t show a relation to Indian heritage. Instead, they’re conforming to fit more into America, in order to be accepted. This is basically linguistic terrorism to Anzadula. The lack of acknowledgment for being Chicano is an attack on her identity because it is implied that, that part of her heritage isn’t accepted. Therefore, a part of her, or her as a whole isn’t accepted.

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  14. Linguistic terrorism is when people are judged or attacked for the way the language they speak or the accent that they have. People are choosing which languages are acceptable and authentic and which are not often leading to hierarchy. (“Linguistic Terrorism”). Along with Anzaldua linguistic terrorism is seen at work in other texts such as Lissa Stapleton’s study on “d/Deaf Women of Color’s Experiences With Racial/Ethnic and d/Deaf Identities in College”. Through her study Stapleton explains the struggles and hardships d/Deaf women in the college community go through, such as trying to find their identities. The d/Deaf community in schools around the country is growing and education practitioners are primarily focused on the white race, and are leaving the voices of d/Deaf people of color unnoticed. Stapleton states that “Most research on d/Deaf college students lacks racial/ethnic diversity within the study or does not use race as a variable; thus, it is unclear how d/Deaf students of color are faring in higher education or what experiences they are having.” (Stapleton, 571). This is where linguistic terrorism is at work within the text. Women of color and other racial backgrounds do not have a voice in the d/Deaf college community. Because their culture and languages at home are different does not mean they are different from everyone else, or that they should be excluded. Similarly to Anzaldua’s thoughts on acceptance of all languages and accents Stapleton feels that everyone in the d/Deaf community should be supported no matter what their racial or ethnic background is. It is difficult for d/Deaf students to interact and find a social group to begin with and Stapleton adds that ethnic and racial identification plays a big role in the hardships and linguistic terrorism.

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  15. 1. Reciprocity is when two or more people have equal exchanges of goods/services. A caregiver is providing the everyday needs of someone else, also to be an emotional/moral support. In the relationship of a caregiver and a disable individual, there isn’t a mutual exchange; there is no benefit for the care giver, so this relationship becomes one sided. In Barbara Davis article, “Women, Disability, and Feminism: Notes toward a New Theory” it states: “Reciprocity involves the difficulty of recognizing each other’s needs, relying on the other, asking and receiving help, delegating responsibility, giving and receiving empathy, respecting boundaries.” Leading back to the original topic that a caregiver and the person in need relationship is not reciprocity. As the author stated in the quote, “respecting boundaries” or “receiving help” is not in the relationship between the caregiver and person in need. Although the caregiver does that for the person in need, the action is not reciprocated back, thus making the relationship not reciprocity. The caregiver of a disabled individual gets criticized from others and have to be worried about making others comfortable.

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  16. 1.Reciprocity is the exchanging of feelings one another for a benefit for both sides and be able to rely one another. The problem with reciprocity is that with a disable person and caregiver is that the dependent doesnt know that caregiver needs, it becomes a one sided relationship making it hard for the caregiver to express her own needs. Caregivers are not given enough credit for their hard work, they are expected to give without expectations to them.However They are not that only ones receiving bad reciprocity Dependents too by institutions or teacher putting fake standards for the dependent when they know he is not able to do that. Overall both parts can receive a problematic reciprocity.

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  17. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by organization to another. The problem in the sense of “women, disability,m and feminism “, is that there is no real reciprocity between the disabled and the caregiver. Even though someone that may be disabled can rely on there caregiver to help them do daily tasks and always be there for them , a caregiver can not expect the same in return. Because someone that is disabled is not that reliables, it makes it a one sided relationship that is hard for the caregiver to express their needs. It can also be a problem for a caregiver because they do not always receive the credit that deserve.

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  18. The definition of reciprocity goes as “the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit.” In regards to the caregiver and the disabled person, this is not the case and that is the problem. A disabled person can not give anything that could benefit the caregiver or their guardian. Yes, whatever they’re doing can be self-fulfilling because they’re doing a humane thing by helping them out, but there is nothing that can benefit them. The government does give them social security money to the disabled, but it’s not even a lot of money. Most parents have to give up their actual full-time job to take care of the disabled child because that’s already a full time job. Davis wants there to be mutual benefit, but even she knows it’s unrealistic and it won’t be easy, they disabled person doesn’t even understand their own needs, how are they going to know their caregiver’s needs because they are emotionally and mentally handicapped (Davis 4).

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  19. 1. Reciprocity is when there is a mutual benefit between two individuals. In the context of Barbara Hillyer Davis’s text of the relationship of caregiver and disabled person, the problem with reciprocity is that it is difficult for the disabled to give back to the caregiver since they might not be able to either physically or emotionally. As a result, reciprocity does not exist in this context since it is more likely that the caregiver is providing care for the disabled more than the disabled giving back to the caregiver and as a result the relationship between caregiver and disabled person is one-sided. As Davis states, “Against the social and personal pressures epitomized in the issues of independence and productivity, both disabled women and women caregivers need a clear understanding of their situation as women to enable them to develop a reciprocal relationship, an understanding that meeting needs need not be so one-sided.” Therefore, Davis is explaining that the relationship between caregiver and disabled women is one sided as stated previously and she wants to change this to making it a reciprocal relationship. The concept of reciprocity is similar to “symbiotic” relationship in which it is assumed that the caregiver benefits the disabled and vice versa when this is not true, usually only the caregiver provides care for the disabled, and this as a result, demonstrates the “asymmetry” in this relationship.

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  20. Reciprocity is a situation or relationship in which two people or groups agree to do something similar for each other, to allow each other to have the same rights, etc..(http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reciprocity). Reciprocity applies to both caregivers and disabled people. The problem with reciprocity is that there is no benefit to the caregiver. A caregiver is someone who provides the everyday needs of someone else as well as emotional and moral support. In Barbara Davis’s article “Women, Disability, and Feminism” she mentions that “Reciprocity also involves , the ability to accept
    what we are unable to give and what others are unable
    to give.” This is where the problem of reciprocity comes from since caregivers are not receiving any kind of benefit from helping disabled people. In the article she also mentions that handling disabled people forces caregivers to face the problem of reciprocity which is true. In summary, reciprocity involves both caregivers and disabled people and the main problem of reciprocity is that caregivers don’t get any form of benefit from taking care of disabled people since reciprocity involves the engagement of both people and are unable to give back in return, meaning that disabled people get more benefit than the caregiver does.

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  21. Reciprocity is the capacity to give back in return when receiving something. The problem with reciprocity is that people depend on it but there is no mutual benefit. It is not required but is a social “norm.” Therefore this that take but don’t give back are considered free riders and are looked down upon. This could bring society down and could also turn groups against each other. In the article “women, disability and feminism” by Davis reciprocity applies to the caregiver of a “handicapped.” Caregivers for disabled people are in most cases not getting anything back in return for the care and help they are providing simply because it is very difficult for a handicapped to give something back in return when they don’t even understand their own needs. With that being said there are no mutual benefits for caregivers and they are not given nearly as much credit as they deserve.

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  22. 1. Barbara Hillyer Davis highlights the investment in a relationship by both partners. She explores the difficulty of recognizing each others needs, relying on the other, and being able to delegate responsibilities with respect to one’s boundaries and in that context, i believe the problem with reciprocity is not being able to accept what we’re unable to give and what others are unable to give which creates a one-sided relationship between the patient and the caregiver. Moreover, the burden of reciprocity seems to fall on the caregiver because the limitations they face on a daily basis isn’t always intrinsic but that of the disabled. However, it is not necessarily interpreted that way, it’s seen more as an excuse by the caregiver.

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  23. 1.
    In “Women, Disability, and Feminism: Notes Toward a New Theory”, Barbara Davis discusses the relationship between able-bodied mothers and their disabled children. She points out that this topic is often misunderstood or unheard because this relationship is rare to find in feminist literature. Davis displays the stresses and struggles of being in not a symbiotic relationship, but an asymmetric relationship with her disabled daughter. The problem with reciprocity is that there’s no mutual benefit in the relationship between an able-bodied parent and their disabled child. According to Webster’s dictionary, reciprocity is defined as, “the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country or organization to another.” The problem with it relates specifically to the caretakers who are stuck in this one sided relationship, constantly overwhelmed by their daily caregiving tasks. Our society makes it extremely difficult for a mother to ask for a few days off from her disabled child. Automatically, she is deemed unloving or uncompassionate for wanting space from her son or daughter. What we fail to acknowledge is the patronizing society surrounding the parent and child which creates this problem.

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  24. 1.
    According to Merriam Webster, the definition of reciprocity is a situation or relationship in which two people or groups agree to do something similar for each other, in the reading by Barbara Hillyer Davis that is not exactly the case that Davis describes. In the article Davis sheds light towards the topic of disabled women and those who care for them. Those who care for the disabled women take on a massive amount of responsibility, some more and less depending on the disability the women may have but in each case the caregiver has a lot of weight on their shoulders. The problem of reciprocity in this situation is that it is one-sided; there is no mutual benefit for the caregiver. This applies to people who provide help to others for basic human needs but do not receive the same type of treatment that was provided, for example, as stated above, caregivers.

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  25. 1. The problem of reciprocity is that it creates a barrier between the caregiver and the disabled. According to Barbara reciprocity is “a serious problem, especially when the disabled person is a child or is mentally or emotionally handicapped, is that the person needing help lacks a realistic sense of the caregiver’s needs.” Therefore reciprocity is a problem because there’s no real mutual benefit for both people (caregiver and handicapped) its always one sided. This case applies to women with disabilities, and women caring for a child with a disability.

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  26. Reciprocity is the exchange of mutual benefits between two parties ; which can be emotionally or physically. In regards to the articles, reciprocity becomes a problem for the caregiver and someone disabled because there’s a handicap strain on the relationship to communicate and assist each other effectively to the point at which reciprocity is understood. In other words, someone disabled may not understand the needs of someone who is not disabled , such as the caregiver. For example, the disabled body always get assistance in transporting from one place to the next and may not understand how much energy the caregiver uses to assist, seeing that the disabled person don’t use the same energy. Thus creating an unbalanced relationship which can be interpreted from many outside perspectives. Outside perspectives play a role with the problem of reciprocity because putting the nose where it don’t belong creates stereotypes that gives illusion that the relationship is equal or crucial to effort and can lead to stress on the caregiver, making the job even harder to bare. The relationship between the Caregiver and the disabled is asymmetric ideally because the emotional and physical states are opposite and have no definite relations making reciprocity ultimately a problem rather than a solution to the relationship between caregiver and disable body.

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  27. Reciprocity is defined as “the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit.” The problem with reciprocity is the fact that it assumes that you must receive something in return for doing something. This applies to people who are able bodies. However, it conflicts with those of mental disabilities, for they receive but are unable to give any sort of service back. In the article “Women, Disability, and Feminism”, Davis explains it as “Reciprocity involves the difficulty of recognizing each other’s needs, relying on the other, asking and receiving help, delegating responsibility, giving and receiving empathy, respecting boundaries. It also involves, as Eleanor Roosevelt pointed out, the ability to accept what we are unable to give and what others are unable to give.” (Davis 4). The biggest issue is that we are not capable of understanding that there are some cases where you literally can not receive anything in return. Someone, such as a caregiver does not exactly appeal to the idea of reciprocity, for they are providing someones everyday needs, with nothing in return. Many people are incapable of accepting this fact, and it is often believe to be “selfishness” when we can not give what we are unable to, or when we are unable to help. “My point
    is not merely that we should change these patterns, but
    that the reciprocity worked out between a woman with
    disabilities and a caring woman can serve as a model for
    the rest of us only if we attend thoughtfully to what they
    have learned and believe them when they tell us.”(Davis 4). Davis is calling out that we must acknowledge the fact that there are some relationships in which you can not receive anything, and that we must believe and respect someone when they tell us they are unable to provide any service back to us. We must learn by doing not just for our own selfish causes.

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  28. The problem with reciprocity is reciprocation is not available to everyone. As mentioned, the term or action is one-sided. According to text, the disable person is on the receiving end and the caregiver needs may not be met or it can be interchangeable for both needs are not met at some level. In this case, women, as caregivers, are deemed not to ask for assistance because of society norms; that woman are innately to care for something or someone. or that woman are “supposed” to selfless. The problem with reciprocity is that it is not applicable to every situation.

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  29. According to the article “Women, Disability, and Feminism” The problem of reciprocity was no mutual benefits for the person providing the care. caregivers doesn’t revise any benefits from helping disabled, its only one-sided. Reciprocity focus on the distinguishing each others needs, and women morality. Reciprocity problems specially apply on the caregivers. Since the disability or being handicapped doesn’t physically happen to the caregiver the problems are compounded. Caregivers or parents are expected to handle everything without asking for any help so that they won’t be seen as selfish.

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  30. 1. Reciprocity is when something is given that will benefit both ends. In the last article we read on able mother and disabled children , reciprocity would be in referral to the mothers. In this case , there is no reciprocity since both ends are not receiving benefits . In example , the reading displays the daily challenge that mothers encountered with their disabled children. They spend at least over eight hours in a day with their children(which is basically a full shift) but not getting pay. The mothers are doing what mothers are supposed to do such as feeding their children, changing them and so forth , yet they encounter even more challenges since their children are physically unable to do what other children can. These mothers also encounter outside judgement for all they do and backhand compliments .

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  31. According to Gloria Anzaldua, linguistic terrorism is defined as a strong connection between languages and identity. It is also important to distinguish that their is more of an in depth meaning to linguistic terrorism such as the silence that was inevitably forced upon individuals who were different in cultural, gender, racial and many more aspects whom society saw as such a wrong impact in society. Also linguistic terrorism is the criticizing of one’s accent and automatically assuming who this person is based on the way they speak. Anzaldua was a victim of this because throughout her childhood she was scolded and criticized by the way she spoke from her teachers and even her mother. As to addressing identity, Anzaldua mentions in the text, ” I feel like one cancels out the other and we are zero, nothing, no one.” For instance, Anzaldua is describing how many people from different cultural and racial groups tend to be perceived as someone whom they’re not. This causes for many people to lose their true identity and their cultural roots as well. Also in the “Transformation of silence” the author explains how she felt as if she was dying inside due to not being able to express who she really is because of the color of her skin, the racial inequalities caused many black women to become silent. It is important to understand how many of these authors in the current readings are standing for what they believe in for a change in the future.

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  32. Linguistic Terrorism is used as a political weapon to create fear, judgement and/or misconception about a particular issues or groups/race that do not fit in the standard of western civilization; however in Anzaldua text, she refers that language shapes our person-in-environment and it is apart of one’s identity whether Black/Caribbean or Chicano Spanish. The dialect creates the differentiation among mainstream society or the standard in one’s community. The text from Spanish to English contextualize the duality for what is acceptable and what is not considered acceptable from her own experiences.

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