#6

  1. Is the “feminization of poverty” an example of the “universality of the feminine experience”?  Why or why not?
  2. What, if anything, does linking a sense of coherence, poverty, and depressive symptoms make possible?  (Note: this is not asking about Bedouin women, as they are the subject of the study.)
  3. Is there a feminization of labor?
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33 thoughts on “#6

  1. 3. Feminization of labor is an ongoing struggle that has always been evident in both the United States and around the world. In Diane Pearce’s article “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare”, Pearce argues that Women on average receive less of a wage doing the same job as their male counterparts. This is evident when she states that “it was found that women who head families would receive 36% more income if they were men” (Pearce 29). This was based on a study done by the Urban Institute which gives the results some sort of credibility. With that said, single mothers face many difficulties in raising their children with such low incomes. As the first table of results shows in the study, as the weekly average earnings of a job went up, the percentage of the workforce being women, went down which means that women were hired to do the jobs that payed very little, usually not enough to support a family. In 1970, “there were six million women who worked full time, year round, and earned less than $4000 per year” (Pearson 29). With less than $4000 a year, one could not support a family no matter how many hours they worked. In retrospect the women who were making that low of incomes were the ones that were hired to do the low paying jobs that men were not hired to do because then they would have to pay them more. This shows that there is not only a wage gap in similar jobs, but there is also a discriminatory factor behind the hiring process that we have had here and currently still have.

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    1. There is definitely feminization of labor among women than men in the last recent years, feminization of labor allows women to work in different environments just as a man but seemly evolves women to be higher power in the working force, which is not always possible. Many years ago women were forced to be housewives and create children, while men were the primary faces of the workforce environment. Now women are working and still struggling to make ends meet for their families, alongside their man. In our reading, The Feminization of poverty talks about how women are still at the bottom financially. This article states “The rapid growth of jobs, particularly since world war II, has been in industries and occupations that are low wages and dead end – and open to women. Once in the labor, women are confined to theses jobs, and are restricted to moving into better paid”. Women have always been put on the back burner in regards to salary and work environment, making sure that men are the top source and first ones to become successful.

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  2. The “feminization of poverty” is an example of the “universality of the feminine experience”. As Diana Pierce writes, poverty is feminized particularly where welfare programs that view women as disadvantaged are in place. Pierce also writes that women’s access to higher paying jobs is limited and stymied by nature of their being welfare recipients. If they make too much, they can’t be on welfare and have to make substantially more to make ends meet, but if they make too little, even welfare is not enough to survive. The stigma of poverty also prevents women from being able to rise. Employers also take advantage of the fact that women will work low, part time wages, and aren’t interested in seeing women obtain skills because this will be expensive for them as more women unionize and fight for workplace benefits. Within the United States, welfare contributes to the “feminization of poverty” but in other countries, women confined to low wage jobs also suffer from “feminization of poverty” without the added complexity of existing in the welfare system. The absence of welfare simply means that women who must work will work for low wages, and this will often mean working in industries dominated by women such as the apparel industry or hospitality industry.

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  3. #6
    3. Is there a feminization of labor?
    The existence of Feminization of labor can be supported by Diane Pearce’s argument about Occupational Segregation. She argued that women were confined to low wage jobs and they were all involved in non-various occupations. Restrictions of moving up in the ladder of success have concentrated women on fewer occupations than that of men. Also, she mentions that women have become permanent part-time workers. This minimizes their commitment to the idea of an individual career, according to Pearce. In my own words, women have been discouraged and they have been deprived of the hope of succeeding beyond society’s expectations. Therefore, I will say that the feminization of labor does exist however its existence was much more evident in the 20th century compared to today.

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  4. 3. Yes, there is a feminization of labor. Feminization of labor is the trend towards greater employment of women, and of men willing and able to operate with these more feminized workplaces. In “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare,” Diane Pearce talks about how women and poverty have gone hand in hand for decades. Even when there is a head female in the household, the poverty is still sky high. She says that “though many women have achieved economic independence from their spouses by their participation in the labor force, for many the price of the independence has been their pauperization and dependence on welfare.” Women, after struggling to gain independence from the restrictions of men, now have the stress of upholding a household and income for their children. Employers want women to view the workplace as temporary and secondary, and their homes and families as primary. This way, they are less likely to engage in activities such as participating in labor unions and affirmative action suits, making demands for skill development, and working long enough to be eligible for a pension. Employers want to obtain loyal but not long term employees but are disinterested in developing quality day care, including mothers on welfare. They believe that this kind of service will be an open window for women to have an uninterrupted worklife, to demand a promotion and might become expensive. Providing daycare implies that the women are going to permanently participate in the labor force, and that they will be accepted in society. This proves that there is a feminization of labor and that women, even in the workplace, are put second to men and are deemed not as important or useful to society.

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  5. There is abolutely a feminization of labor. The author of the article states that “women are much more concentrated in fewer occupations than men”(Pearce) and “once in the labor force, women are confined to these jobs and are rescricted from moving into better paid jobs or moving career ladders”( Pearce) so on top of poor,single women competing with every other poor, single women they are not even given the opportunity to move forward out of the poverty line in the same way that men are. They are resigned to their positions in life. Pearce also argues that “women, as well as theIr employers, view their work as temporary/secondary whlie their home” (Pearce) this ideology hinders a woman’s ability to fully emerge themselves in their professional careers because the only career that a woman truly has is the one at home with her children. The feminization of labor has hindered poor women’s potential to strive in the labor force because of the expectations that society puts on those marginalized women.

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  6. 3. I believe that there is a feminization of labor. Globally you can see all around the world that women are receiving the shorter end of the stick in terms of work. In the piece “The Feminization of Poverty” by Diana Pierce accentuates the feminization of labor. “The ratio of median Income of female-headed families
    to male-headed families has declined steadily from 56% in 1950 to 47% in 1974. Moreover between 1950 and 1976 the number of families with incomes less than the poverty level that were female-headed doubled.”(Pierce 28). In the studies done, women have always earned less than men, and as the years go on, it only increases in the number of women who are gradually moving towards, and under the poverty line. “…particularly since World War ii, has been in Industries and occupations that are low wage and dead end— and open to women. Once in the labor force, women are confined to these jobs, and are restricted from moving Into better paid.”(Pierce 29). The notion that woman are stuck with low paying jobs, and unable to climb up the ladder is a big factor as to why there is in fact a feminization of labor. It is unfair that women are unable to excel simply because they are women. The fact that jobs do not want a woman because she is classified as a “part time worker” is in essence, bullshit. They believe that because she may leave for 9 months, or 6 weeks due to children, that she is now unable or unreliable emphasizes the feminization of labor.

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  7. There is a feminization of labor. Women and men are treated differently in the labor force. Women suffered from high rates of unemployment and it was higher than men’s unemployment rates. “Whereas in 1950, the unemployment rate of women was only slightly higher than that of men(5.7 vs. 5.1), by 1976 it was 8.6 compared to the male rate of 7.0″(Pearce 28).They received lower wages than men. “The female/male ratio of full-time, year-round, civilian earnings has fall from .67 to .57 between 1960 and 1974(Pearce 28). Women were not allowed to have better paying jobs and were more associated with lower-paying jobs such as apparel manufacture,house-hold service workers, or farm workers. It was stated in the article that the more women there was in a certain job, the less their average income would be. Women also suffered from occupational segregation. “It was found that women who head families would receive 36% more income if they were men, other things equal”(Pearce 29). Men’s work ethic would be also be accounted for, causing the income to increase by 13%. Women were seen as temporary or cheap workers because of familial duties or the possibility of motherhood. Women were unable to work full-time.

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  8. Feminization of labor is definitely still occurring in our society. There has been evidence of this in both developed as well developing countries but it is more to be a struggle in developing countries. The country I come from that is India, even in today’s world a huge number of womens are not allowed to go out to work and have to simply stay home and take care of the family members and household work. In the Article of Feminization of poverty: Women, work and welfare Diane Pearce states that “in 1976, nearly two out of three of the 15 million poor persons over 18 were women”. (Bureau of the Census, 1976). There are records that women earning compare to men have consistently decreases over last decades. According to the bureau of census “the female/male ratio of full-time, year-round, civilian earnings has fallen from .61 to .57”. (Diane Pearce 28). All this simply shows that we have created an image that women must work with lower wages than man and also they are given less chances to work at higher position of which they are capable of. I would not say we still have the same amount of problem how much it was before but we cannot really say that this problem does not exist at all currently either. Thus I think feminization of labor is still there.

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  9. 3) There is indeed a feminization of labor. Diane Pearce discusses how this occurs and other topics related to it in her writing, “Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare”. Throughout the text, Pearce informs readers how women have suffered from poverty, welfare, and labor more than men. Pearce mentions that employers would like women to view their workplace as secondary and temporary, putting their family life at home as their primary concern. This makes it less probable for women to become fully involved in the workplace through means such as company activities or events. Pearce also refers to how women in the work force tend to be stuck in the position they earn, and struggle to progress to a higher ranking or status. This inability to move up as Pearce mentions is very similar to the modern term, glass ceiling; an unacknowledged barrier preventing advancement in the workplace, prominent in women and minorities. Feminization of labor prevents women from becoming too involved in their careers, and obstructs progress in gaining better career positions. These two examples demonstrate that their is indeed feminization of labor.

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  10. Feminization of labor is an increase participation in the workforce for women. Today, in 2016 we do have feminization of labor because now women can’t get discriminated at a job because of her gender, if she was then that would be illegal. But when Diane Pearce wrote “The Feminization of poverty: Women, Work and Welfare” back in 1978, women didn’t have these same rights. Women were discriminated in the work force because men thought that she wasn’t able to do the same tasks as a man. Also they thought that because she was a mother figure, she would pick her family over her job or career. In the article it says, “once in the labor force, women are confined to these jobs, and are restricted from moving into better pald jobs, or moving up career ladders. As a result, women are more concentrated in fewer occupations than men are”(Pearce,2)This shows that women are stuck, like if they were in a box to stay in jobs that they might not have any future in, If this was to happen today then women would be able to complain or even sue. Pearce states, “Whereas in 1950 the unemployment rate of women was slightly larger than that of men, by 1976 it was 8.6 compared to the male rate of 7.0″(1). She demonstrates that women weren’t being hired in jobs, which meant they were being discriminated. This would not slide by in todays generation. Women have the same rights as men. In the end we do have a feminization of labor in 2016, but back when Pearce write this article their wasn’t. Many things that happened then would be illegal today.

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  11. There is undoubtedly a feminization of labor that has been emerging for years. The term “feminization of labor” relates to the increase of women in the paid workforce where the jobs are said to be for both sexes. A woman’s job in the past was primarily domestic and considered secondary work but overtime has been incorporated to the paid workforce while still being inferior to men. Therefore the labor of men and women were always separated. Moving forward throughout the years there has been an increase in the amount of flexibility for both men and women in the workforce. Yet, women are still mistreated underpaid and unappreciated in the workplace. In the article “The Feminization of Poverty; Women, Work, and Welfare” Diana Pearce explains how women are at the bottom of the labor market and are not held to the same standards as men. Pearce does include that “women’s entry into the labor force in steadNy increasing numbers, from less than one-fIfth of the work force in 1920 to neariy 40% today, has been bought at the price of economic advancement for women workers.” (Pearce 28). Therefore there is progress for women in paid work. Pearce also includes that unfortunately, women’s occupation are segregated from mens and that women are fulfilling the low income occupations that are available to them. The feminization of labor is still occurring because even though women are working and getting paid they still do not have limited occupational opportunities.

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  12. Yes, there is feminization of labor. In fact, it is an ongoing struggle that has been happening all around the world. The existence of Feminization of labor can be supported by Diane Pearce. In her article “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare,” explains that women and men are treated differently in a every day working place, a woman could do the same job as the male coworkers but still get paid less. Compared to men, women suffered from high rates of unemployment and it was higher than men’s unemployment rates. Women in history have been seen as the caretakers in the household and that was their job. Women began to work for their family whether they were a single mother or a wife, they still struggled in the workforce. Pearce states “The rapid growth of jobs, particularly since world war II, has been in industries and occupations that are low wages and dead end – and open to women. Once in the labor, women are confined to theses jobs, and are restricted to moving into better paid” Thus showing the equality woman faced ever since back then to now. The article also states that in the 1970’s, “there were six million women who worked full time, year round, and earned less than $4000 per year.” Both of these statements explains the conflicts within the labor force. Women in poverty have been discouraged by society by not helping the women persevere. Women are given limited opportunities, the workforce is more willing to employ a male because they are “more fitting” for jobs. A men is more likely to get a job because women are the ones who become pregnant and have to be given leave and do their “god-given” job of taking care of the child she had. Showing the injustice that females have in a labor work field. Not only do we, as women, get paid less but also get judged and picked over a man because we carry the burden of carrying a child.

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  13. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or employee because of the person’s race, sex, religion, sexuality, age or disability. When there is feminization of labor is when there is a greater employment for women and men and women are considered and treated as equals. Thus, with the law backing women up when it comes to employment, there is a feminization of labor. Unfortunately, we do not live in an ideal world, there are rules and laws that people do not follow and women often, do not proceed to file a charge against their employer. Worldwide, there is gender discrimination and sexual harassment that happens in the workplace every single day the result of this comes down heavily on women, especially amongst single mothers consequentially, leaving them to live in poverty. According to Pearce, “women are permanent temporary workers” (29). Along with the discrimination and injustice, single mothers do not get the funding they deserve from the father of their child, the heavy responsibility is ultimately, held on the woman. Child support payments are paid irregularly, frequently well below need and are subject to premature demise (Pierce 32). Overall, there are laws for equality in our time, but there is improvement needed to be done. With this current election focusing on the wage gap between men and women, I’m being optimistic that there will be more changes in women equality and enforcing the equality laws by setting stricter regulations.

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  14. 1. Feminization of poverty is an example of the universality of the feminine experience. Based on the article by Dana Peirce “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare”, she states “As long as women, as well as their employers, view their work as temporary/secondary while their home and family is their permanent/primary commitment, they are less likely to engage in expensive-to-the-employer type activities, such as participating in labor unions and affirmative action suits, making demands for advancement or skill development, and even simply working long enough to be eligible for a pension”(Pierce 29). This means that because women put home life as a priority, they are not as valued compared to male employees. Therefore, they are taken advantage of and given lesser pay. Pierce also explains that they have high unemployment rates and have long waiting period between jobs and this causes a pattern of instability and makes them leave the labor force. This type of discouragement makes women more likely prone to poverty.

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  15. There is most definitely a feminization of labor. Diana Pierce explains this roughly throughout the article “Feminization of poverty.” Pearce states “once in the labor force, women are confined to these jobs and are restricted from moving into better paid jobs.” With that being said women are basically being forced to stay at the financial rate they start with and are not given the opportunity to achieve better paying occupations to make a better living for themselves. This especially affects poor single women with children. Not only are they working to make little money for them and their children but also are unable to get better paying jobs, which leads to these single-parent poor women to apply for “welfare” that they may or may not get approved for. Feminization of labor is preventing woman from getting more involved in their occupations which causes woman to have lower paying jobs. I believe that today there is definitely still a strain of feminization of labor but not as extreme as it use to be. Still today, women get paid less than men depending on their occupation, even with degrees and work achievement– women still get paid less than men. Women, continue to come second to men and being a single parent woman who is poor does not help because they are most definitely looked down upon, when in my opinion they should be looked as role models because they are strong enough to do everything on their own with out a man in their lives.

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  16. 1. Is the “feminization of poverty” an example of the “universality of the feminine experience”? Why or why not?

    Feminization of poverty is not an example of the universality of the feminine experience. The universality of the feminine experience relates to the general experiences/injustices that women as a whole must face around the world. This phrase, “universality of the feminine experience” bleeds into the same issues with “Problematics of Transnational Feminism”. It is unfair and dismissive to lump together women around the world who are facing poverty.
    In “The Feminization of Poverty”, Diane Pearce discusses the faults with the institutions of marriage, welfare, and how they are directly linked to the United States government. She explains that single women in the US are institutionally kept poor and says, “Within occupationally segregated ‘ghettos,’ the demand for cheap labor and the demand for female labor became synonymous.” Through her evidence about the rates between single mothers in poverty and their invalid children, Pearce gives readers some insight about the evils of capitalism. It is unfair to say that the United States’s feminization of poverty is an example of the feminine experience because this assumes that every woman faces capitalism in her country. It assumes the every woman receives welfare checks, or gets a tax break from being married and having children through wedlock in their country. The feminization of poverty is not an example of the universality of the feminine experience because that would be making the assumption that all women from developing and developed countries face the same problems, simply because they are women.
    Sources:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Child_support_by_country

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    1. Question: The aspects of poverty or lack of support for women is not the unversality of feminine experiences?
      Are you saying that apples and oranges are not fruit?
      I get the context of the Institution of marriage- in other countries women are married off through arrangement; however the struggles of woman are interrelated or are the same across the global; although western culture and the struggles dominant over developing countries issues.

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  17. The feminization of poverty is the universality of the feminine experience because although the poverty aspect of it is consistent with money issues there is a correlation between the lack of support distributed to women in need. Universally women struggle in other aspects that may not necessarily be poverty but are still lacking proper support; such as equality, in the everyday fight for a voice where men hold the ultimate power over decisions. In class we discussed how women are held responsible for the upbringing of children even if the father is not present, which can correlate to the work of women dealing with the disabled body and how stereotypes suggest that woman are more fit for the role of nourishment. All these aspects play a part on the universal manipulations that suggest women are only good for reproduction and are still held to that standard even if they exist in poverty. With the equality aspect, although two people play a part in reproduction, if that man chooses to leave the family there is no definite penaltyor stigma in place for those men, but if a woman neglect her child she is seen as unfit and can face social discrimination. The point I’m trying to make is the feminization of poverty is an element of the universality of feminism because those women face similar if not equal problems pertaining to the lack of support to women versus men.

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  18. 1. The feminization of poverty is definitely an example of “the universality of the female experience” because although in the article Diane Pearce focuses in on the experiences of women living below the poverty line in the United States, it’s almost certain that poor women in other countries experience similar financial struggles when at the head of the household. Obviously they don’t all receive welfare checks and tax breaks and whatnot, but globally a womans’ labor is seen as lesser than a man’s, and they will struggle in these positions more than men will. In certain countries they are not even allowed to work or are allowed to work in very limited fields, and this can hinder their ability to provide for themselves and their children. Speaking from personal experience, I can recall from past visits to both Saudi Arabia and India that there is an absurd amount of women living on the streets with just their children, panhandling or selling things or begging for food. Women are often left to fend for themselves and their children while the father gets a get-out-of-jail-free card and only has to support himself. There is unfortunately a universality to the experience of women (and children) being the face of poverty all around the world, and whether struggling to raise their kids on the streets of India or on welfare checks in the United States, their situation is caused by similar acts of prejudice against women and their abilities, and their imposed roles in society.

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  19. 3.)There is indeed a feminization of labor. In “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare” piece by Diane Pierce discusses how women were treated during the labor force and how women were more unemployed than men. For the conditions, “Women are restricted to better pay and are confined to these jobs”. Thus, women are unable to move up and are struggling to achieve a higher status that they deserve. For unemployment, women are forced to live in poor male-headed households and women are becoming increasingly poor. In today’s class we talked about state sanctioned absentee adulthood and how this piece does not include the role of men. It only talks about women and how women are in poverty, work and also welfare. My point is that women have to struggle in order to keep up with men and also it seems like an endless road for these women in poverty. These given reasons is why there is indeed a feminization of labor. In theory feminization of labor focuses feminization of the workplace and towards greater employment of women which is what the author of this piece talked about.

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  20. The “feminization of poverty” is an example of the universality of the feminine experience. Working women in the United States earn less than men even if they work full time and year around in the same occupation. As Diana Pearce states, “yet, women’s earning relative to those of men, have decreased; the female/male ratio of full time, year-round, civilian earnings has fallen from 0.61 to 0.56 between 1960 and 1974.” Another point the author makes is that women usually work in certain jobs that might not pay as well as men-dominated jobs. As she states, “women are concentrated in relatively few, generally low-paying occupations.” Furthermore, employers usually view women as temporary workers who have their main job as being a mother and caring for her family. Thus, they do not develop day care for them, since this service will make them more committed to work and “acquire seniority” as Pearce states and “become expensive.” These three points made by the author about women working full time, having low-paying jobs, and not being able to “acquire seniority” are issues that happen universally because of the dominant view that women are mothers or will become mothers and therefore are unreliable in their commitment to any occupation.

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  21. I believe that there is a feminization of labor that does exist. Feminization of labor is referred to as the increase in women working and being paid in a predominately male work field. The with this is that even though these women are working alongside their male counter parts, they do not make equal amounts of money , and they have a harder time of getting a job promotion. because of this, it leaves these working women , possibly mothers still in poverty. they become stuck in poverty because of wage gaps and employers not wanting to pay as much for a woman to work there especially if she is pregnant . because of jobs not helping some, it forces them to rely on the government for help and assistance .

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  22. 1.) I do think that “feminization of poverty” is the universality of the feminine experience because it shows that no matter what the the female’s best interest are, they will always be judged and looked down upon, and there is no win-win situation for them. Pearce portrays this notion in many ways in her article. She describes that women in the work force are just seen as part-timers, rather than being seen as someone who needs to provide for their family. She also brings up how the welfare system is unfair and does not provide all the supplies a women needs in order for her and her family to live a comfortable life. Many times things do not work in women’s favor, for example when it comes in terms of child support. it’s the woman who needs to deal with all the paper work and going to court, while the father if he does not show up, the state does not do much about it, and puts the rest of load on the mother. Feminization of poverty is an example of the universality of feminine experience because it shows how women are being treated unequally despite their best efforts and it shows that men will either always be on top or not be at fault for whatever happens to the woman and the children after he pays his own dues.

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  23. The Feminization of labor does exist. In the article “The feminization of poverty: Women, Work and Welfare”, Diana Pierce tell us that women were having struggles because they were seen as not competent and most of the time they are look has secondary or temporary workers because their priorities may not be work but their children. The Limited opportunities and the economic problems and being indirect effect for being female, Pierce gave an example ” housing discrimination forces many women to live in “ghettoes” which are far away from the better- paying jobs in the new suburban industrial parks.” Now a days still continues because women in some jobs are pay less just because of gender.

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  24. Yes, the feminization of poverty is an example of universality of the feminine experience because women, globally, struggle under a patriarchal system ( i.e. government) and economic mobility has it limitations. Women of all nationalities are given roles by society to be caregivers and maintain the home while man is to work and provide the necessities. The disadvantages that are in place for women globally creates a cycle of poverty; from educational/occupational limits to careers with poverty wage. On a larger scale, poverty is consistent with the lack of support or aid for women; when women are held reliable for “their want for children”

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  25. 3. With the sources, I researched I believe that there is a feminization of labor.the definition states that “Feminization of labor is a term that describes developing gendered labor relations born out of the rise of global capitalism. It is feminization of the workplace, which is a trend towards greater employment of women, and of men willing and able to operate with these more feminized workplaces.” Basically, it’s expressing fairness in the work industry. It also includes economic inequality between genders, in the article “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare” author Diane Pearce mentions that women get paid as much as men for doing the same thing. This problem still last in our society today and women are not okay with it.

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  26. First, what is Feminization of Labor: Feminization of labor is a term that describes emerging gendered labor relations born out of the rise of global capitalism. It is feminization of the workplace, which is a trend towards greater employment of women, and of men willing and able to operate with these more feminized workplace.
    Gender-based employment exist because employers required committed workers and women are not likely to obtain strenuous employment (i.e. construction, farm labor, or Mine work) Even in the media and past text; women are portrayed as nurses, teachers, secretaries, cashiers or house-cleaners/babysitter. Most employers target women through temporary positions for it will attract cheap labor and receive low wages which cannot sustain an adequate well-being according to Pearce. These jobs are created to discriminate or to hinder possible upward mobility- part time jobs are not enough; which discourages women to work for there is no true benefit as it would be for a man with or less experience.

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  27. Over decades, women have been limited to the work force and they haven’t had equal opportunities like men did. Women struggled and they were always looked down upon making them feel worthless and like they were no good. Now you can say there is feminization of labor. Yes these articles talk about women on welfare but the truth to all this is that things have changed, more opportunities are give to them and for the most part they are almost if not just as equal to men today based on workforce and other open doors. Especially when it comes to education, women couldn’t go to school and receive a fair education nor have a career, but now everything is different. They are not stay at home moms who only cook and clean and took care of children. Now you see these intelligent women making something out of their lives and taking advantage of the opportunity to become someone in life. You see more women becoming teachers, secretaries, engineers, and even CEO’s. Another interesting feminization labor that has change the way women are viewed today is during the presidential campaign. This is because Hillary Clinton has progressed through the campaign eventually leading to her nomination in the democratic party, proving that feminization labor is still growing as her husband Bill Clinton, former president, has the same roles and responsibilities during his administration.

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  28. Feminization of labor is very well present in today’s world and will continue to be, as in the article “The Feminization of Poverty” it expresses the way the workforce treats women. For example, in the article by Pearce she brings up on many accounts about occupational segregation and occupational limits that are placed on women. Women are scrutinized and seen as their labor to be conditional due to the possibility of motherhood, but for men their labor is praised for because they would never need to request for maternity leave. Especially for single mothers who are out to get a job to support her children, employers may view her as someone who does not deserve a high position because she may not be able to work overtime or to deal with the pressure that comes along with, for example, a manager’s position. Such ideas and labels are still being placed on women in the workforce, which is why it is a struggle for women to climb the ladder in the corporations that they are employed by.

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  29. 3. Is there a feminization of labor?
    Yes there is feminization of labor and it isn’t only in the United States. In Diane Pearce’s article “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Welfare,” she argues that women are receiving less pay than men in the same job. Pearce also mentions the restrictions that women have in society which disables them from moving forward. Today women have become “part-time workers” which minimizes the want of a career over a family. Previously women worked as housewives and child bearers for a living and weren’t able to do anymore, while their husband were the ones working (this is an early example of how women became laborers of feminism). Labor of feminization is still around today and is a huge problem.

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  30. 3. Yes, there is a feminization of labor. Feminization of labor, as described in Diana Pearces’ “The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work, and Welfare”, can be seen as working towards the equality of men and women in the workplace. Since World War 2, companies that pay a low wage to their employees are usually more inclined to hire women. Women are then forced to stay in such low paying jobs because they are discouraged from acquiring higher paying jobs. Subsequently, women are centralized in fewer occupations than men which desensitizes occupational segregation. Women are also required to “view their work as temporary/secondary while their home and family is their permanent/primary commitment” (Pearce 29). This pressure limits women from fully involving their-selves in their career, this making life a whole lot easier and cheaper for employees.

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  31. 3) Is there a feminization of labor?

    Over time there has been a feminization of labor as explained by Diane Pearce’s article “The Feminization of Work: Work, Welfare, and Poverty”. This article explains that through an increase in “women’s iabor-force participation, the mandating of
    affirmative action, and the increasing employment of
    better-educated women.” this feminization of labor is progressively occuring. The feminization of labor is happening because of signs of female upward mobility within the labor market. Although there has been some feminization of the labor market there hasn’t been a complete feminization of it because women are still making less then men. During the periods of 1960 and 1974 for example women’s earnings compared to men on the dollar fell from .61 to .57. This feminization and/or manifestation of women into the labor market is also occuring because of other reasons. Women throughtout the years are becoming more independent. This is a result of birth out of wedlock, divorce, and also women having to in more and more instance having to be the head of the household. This, over the years, has left women with no other option other than to join the workforce to provide for their family. As a result, the feminization of labor.

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